Sunday, 22 May 2016

Cymbeline ~ Cunobelinus ~ Cunobelini ~ Hound of Bel the Sun God

A few coins and artefacts from the period of Cymbeline or Cunobelini

for more information see:-

 gold coin of Cunobelini

 bronze coin of Cunobelini at Camulodenum

 Atrebates Chichester boar, silver coin

 bronze coin of Cunobelini at Camulodenum now Colchester in Essex

 Gold coin of Caractacus son of Cunobelini

 Silver coin of Caractacus

 gold coin of Cunobelini at Camulodenum

 Bronze coin of Addedomarus

Addedomarus (sometimes written Aθθedomarus on coins) was a king of south-eastern Britain in the late 1st century BC. His name is known only from his inscribed coins, the distribution of which seem to indicate that he was the ruler of the Trinovantes.  He was the first king to produce inscribed coins north of the Thames, perhaps as early as 35 BC, although some estimates are as late as 15 BC. He seems to have moved the Trinovantian capital from Braughing in Hertfordshire to Camulodunum (Colchester, Essex). For a brief period (ca. 15-10 BC) he seems to have been supplanted by Tasciovanus of the Catuvellauni, who issued coins from Camulodunum at that time. Addedomarus then appears to have regained power and reigned until 10-5 BC, when he was succeeded by Dubnovellaunus. The Lexden Tumulus on the outskirts of Colchester has been suggested as his tomb.
Addedomarus appears in later, post-Roman and medieval British Celtic genealogies and legends as Aedd Mawr (Addedo the Great). The Welsh Triads recall Aedd Mawr as one of the founders of Britain.

 Silver coin of Caractacus

Silver coin of Verica
Verica (early 1st century AD) was a British client king of the Roman Empire in the years preceding the Claudian invasion of 43 AD.  From his coinage, he appears to have been king of the Atrebates tribe and a son of Commius. He succeeded his elder brother Eppillus as king in about 15 AD, reigning at Calleva Atrebatum, today called Silchester. He was recognised as rex by Rome and appears to have had friendly trade and diplomatic links with the empire.  His territory was pressed from the east by the Catuvellauni, led by Epaticcus, brother of Cunobelinus, who conquered Calleva in about 25 AD. After Epaticcus's death ca. 35 AD Verica regained some territory, but Cunobelinus's son Caratacus took over and conquered the entire kingdom some time after 40 AD.  Dio Cassius records that "Bericus" (almost certainly Verica) was expelled from Britain around this time during a revolt. Suetonius refers to demands by the Britons that Rome return "certain deserters".  As rex, Verica was nominally an ally of Rome, so his exile gave Claudius an excuse to begin his invasion.  Verica's relationship with Rome has been used to argue for the site of the Roman invasion of Britain as being along the south coast to assist him, rather than being at the traditional spot at Richborough in Kent. After the invasion, Verica may have been restored as king, but this is not attested in the historical or archaeological record. In any case a new ruler for the region, Cogidubnus, soon appeared. Cogidubnus may have been an heir of Verica who by this time would have been very elderly indeed.

 above and below head & tail of bronze coin of Cunobelini at Camulodenum

 Bronze mask of Cunobelini as the Sun-God Bel

 gold coin of Cunobelinus

gold coin of Cunobelinus of Camulodenum

 Silver coin of Cunobelinus
 Gold coin of Cunobelinus

 bronze coin of Cunobelinus

 bronze coin of Cunobelinus

 bronze coin of Cunobelinus

 bronze coin of Cunobelinus

Gold coin of Cunobelini

 Bronze coin of Cunobelini
 Map of Southern tribes of Britain

 Bronze coin of Epaticcus circa 20 BC
 Gold coin of Epaticcus circa 20 BC

 Gold coin of the Atrebates

 Gold stater of Cunobelini

 Gold stater of the Parisii of Seine, Northern France  circa 100-75 BC, fishing net & horse

 lamp found with coins of Cunobelini

 Iron-age central Europe
Eoni the Norfolk war goddess, silver

 Vercingetorix denarius-hostilius. 
Vercingetorix was a chieftain of the Arverni tribe; (see map) he united the Gauls in
a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.

William Blake's visionary depiction of Caractacus, son of Cunobelini


  1. I suspect the Norfolk goddess of war was the origin of the children's dipping-out chant "Eoni, meany, miney, mo, catch a member of a swarthy ethnic minority by his toe, if he hollers let him go, Eoni, Meoni, Miney, Mo!"
    I hope you will not consider me a niggard for withholding the original word for he who was to be caught by a pedal phalange.

  2. Hello Crowbard. I've just put up an illustration of an ancient British coin on today's blog entry, which you might find of interest.