Item number one. I have had a very similar one to that. It is a combination tool of a powder horn and a wheel lock spanner. The latter part should date it to the seventeenth century, but it looks more eighteenth century, so that's what I'm going to guess. The one I had was purchased in the north of Sweden, some few years ago.(2) That is an air rifle- a very complete one with a spare butt reservoir, pump, etc. It appears to be of late 18th century date. The Austrian Army (awfully arrayed) were issued with this type of air rifle - is this one of the Austrian military ones ?
1. is given as a priming flask cum wheel key C.17th - C.18th, quite a small thing, I love the long return spring on the nozzle-stop.2. is labelled as a muzzle-loading rifled air-gun by Durs Egg 1770-1800
P.s. Number four is, I hope, an animal castrator. The alternative is tooo awful to contemplate, i.e. - not for animals.
Put your fears to rest dear Bruv, it's a pair of blacksmith's parallel grips. If you look at the linkages you'll see that the two flat surfaces will stay parallel to each other however open or closed the handles are.
The martyr depicted on No.7 may give you a clue as to its usage.
It is, of course, a case for carrying arrows, or cross bow quarrels, a quiver. There are too many saints who met their end in similar circumstances (id est - shot full of arrows- usually after reusing to deny their faith. I think this one is probably Saint Edmund, who was tied to an oak tree in around the year 870 A.D. in East Anglia by the Danes (I think King Guthrum) for execution.
I think that is a very likely saint for this piece, Mike, although the owner has presumed it to be St Sebastian the patron saint of archers, who is more usually depicted (if you'll forgive the pun) aquiver with arrows. Rather than the quiver you suggest, it is a C.16th ivory bracer to protect the archer's left wrist from the slap of the bow-string.
(5) A book of hours. Probably XVI century, although the picture shown has a rather 'early Victorian' look to it.
Surprisingly it is a little earlier, dated 1517. It is labelled as the prayer book of Queen Claude of France (wife of King Francis I)which I think is a dumbed down description of her book of hours, a Christian devotional book popular in the Middle Ages and the most common type of surviving medieval illuminated manuscript. Each book of hours is unique in one way or another, but most contain a similar collection of texts, prayers and psalms, often with appropriate decorations, for Christian devotion. Such books made for wealthy patrons may be extremely lavish, with full-page miniatures.Also known as horae, they were usually written in Latin, although many were written in vernacular European languages, especially Dutch. The English term primer is usually now reserved for horae written in English. Tens of thousands of books of hours have survived to the present day, in libraries and private collections throughout the world.The typical book of hours is an abbreviated form of the breviary which contained the Divine Office recited in monasteries. It was developed for lay people who wished to incorporate elements of monasticism into their devotional life. Reciting the hours typically centred upon the reading of a number of psalms and other prayers. A typical book of hours contains:A Calendar of Church feastsAn excerpt from each of the four gospelsThe Little Office of the Blessed Virgin MaryThe fifteen Psalms of DegreesThe seven Penitential PsalmsA Litany of SaintsAn Office for the DeadThe Hours of the CrossVarious other prayers such as the Marian prayers Obsecro te ("I beseech thee") and O Intemerata ("O undefiled one") were frequently added, as were devotions for use at Mass, and meditations on the Passion of Christ, among other optional texts. (see Wikipedia for much more)
I did say that the book of hours was probably XVIth century - which would include the date of 1517. I still feel that the picture shown on the left page has a rather 'Sweetly Pretty' look to it that gives it a sort of early Victorian air - say 1840.Occasionally you come across pictures that appear a little 'out of period'. I must say that the engraving of the martyrdom of Saint Sebastion/Edmund has the same effect. I suppose the fact that a good many Victorian artists (the pre Rafaelites, etc) were trying hard to give a medieval look to their pictures would work in reverse - that when we see nice early pictures we think of the Victorian artists who've copied them, and aren't too sure of which is which, or who influenced whom.
Certainly Mike, two entirely valid points and the slightly fuzzy focus of the picture 'sweetens' the subject further.
(2) A prototyps motor scooter ? Lambretta/Vespa ? circa 1940 ?
I had hoped the Willys MB (commonly known as a Jeep) in the background would have been a hint to the scooter's American origins. Your classification and dating is accurate. It's a WWII production model Cushman airborne military motor scooter, not much different from its prototype.
3. is the gold and jewel covered Vienna coronation gospels on crimson-dyed vellum, a late 8th century illuminated Gospel Book produced at the court of Charlemagne in Aachen. It was used by the future emperor at his coronation on Christmas Day 800, when he placed three fingers of his right hand on the first page of the Gospel of Saint John and took his oath. Traditionally, it is considered to be the same manuscript that was found in the tomb of Charlemagne when it was opened in the year 1000 by Emperor Otto III. The Coronation Evangeliar cover was created by Hans von Reutlingen, c. 1500 and is now part of the Imperial Treasury (Schatzkammer) in the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria (Schatzkammer, Inv. XIII 18).
8. is a British 17 pounder lodged in armour taken from a Tiger I tank.